Additive Manufacturing of Titanium-Based Materials Using Electron Beam Wire 3D Printing Approach: Peculiarities, Advantages, and Prospects
O. M. Ivasishin$^1$, D. V. Kovalchuk$^2$, P. E. Markovsky$^1$, D. G. Savvakin$^1$, O. O. Stasiuk$^1$, V. I. Bondarchuk$^1$, D. V. Oryshych$^1$, S. G. Sedov$^3$, and V. A. Golub$^3$
$^1$G. V. Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics of the N.A.S. of Ukraine, 36 Academician Vernadsky Blvd., UA-03142 Kyiv, Ukraine
$^2$JSC ‘NVO ‘Chervona Khvylya’, 28 Dubrovytska Str., UA-04114 Kyiv, Ukraine
$^3$National University of Defense of Ukraine named after Ivan Cherniakhovskyi, 28 Povitroflotsky Ave., UA-03049 Kyiv, Ukraine
Received 11.01.2023; final version — 23.01.2023 Download PDF
Potential of additive manufacturing technologies, namely, xBeam 3D Metal Printing for the fabrication of uniform Ti–6Al–4V (Ti-6-4, mas.%) material as well as layered titanium-based structures, with mechanical properties sufficient for wide practical application is demonstrated. The key distinctive features of this process are titanium alloy wire as a feedstock material and hollow conical electron beam for heating and melting of the wire. 3D printed with special ‘shift strategy’ Ti-6-4 alloy meets requirements to mechanical characteristics of corresponding conventional cast and wrought products, if microstructure features, material anisotropy and crystallographic texture are controlled with proper selection of processing parameters. Production of multilayered materials consisting of combined layers of different titanium materials, viz. commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti), Ti-6-4 and high-strength T110 alloys, as well as metal matrix composites (MMC) based on Ti-6-4 matrix reinforced by fine TiC particles is considered. Microstructural features and mechanical properties of all 3D printed materials are investigated. Terminal ballistic tests are performed with different ammunition. Described results show the promising potential of 3D printing technologies, xBeam 3D Metal Printing as an example, for manufacturing of titanium-based multilayered armour materials with reduced thickness and weight, and at the same time, sufficient protection characteristics.
Keywords: titanium alloys, 3D printing, microstructure, multilayered material, mechanical properties, antiballistic protection.
Citation: O. M. Ivasishin, D. V. Kovalchuk, P. E. Markovsky, D. G. Savvakin, O. O. Stasiuk, V. I. Bondarchuk, D. V. Oryshych, S. G. Sedov, and V. A. Golub, Additive Manufacturing of Titanium-Based Materials Using Electron Beam Wire 3D Printing Approach: Peculiarities, Advantages, and Prospects, Progress in Physics of Metals, 24, No. 1: 75–105 (2023)